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Another brilliant take by Terry Tao on an important Mathematical subject. Breathtaking!

If $latex {f: {\bf R}^n \rightarrow {\bf C}}&fg=000000$ and $latex {g: {\bf R}^n \rightarrow {\bf C}}&fg=000000$ are two absolutely integrable functions on a Euclidean space $latex {{\bf R}^n}&fg=000000$, then the convolution $latex {f*g: {\bf R}^n \rightarrow {\bf C}}&fg=000000$ of the two functions is defined by the formula

$latex \displaystyle f*g(x) := \int_{{\bf R}^n} f(y) g(x-y)\ dy = \int_{{\bf R}^n} f(x-z) g(z)\ dz.&fg=000000$

A simple application of the Fubini-Tonelli theorem shows that the convolution $latex {f*g}&fg=000000$ is well-defined almost everywhere, and yields another absolutely integrable function. In the case that $latex {f=1_F}&fg=000000$, $latex {g=1_G}&fg=000000$ are indicator functions, the convolution simplifies to

$latex \displaystyle 1_F*1_G(x) = m( F \cap (x-G) ) = m( (x-F) \cap G ) \ \ \ \ \ (1)&fg=000000$

where $latex {m}&fg=000000$ denotes Lebesgue measure. One can also define convolution on more general locally compact groups than $latex {{\bf R}^n}&fg=000000$, but we will restrict attention to the Euclideanâ€¦

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